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Most of the transpersonal or spiritual theories deal with the meaningfulness of a person's life or ultimate meanings. Abraham Maslow (1954) has also been influential in this approach to motivation. Other influential scholars included Gordon Allport (1955), Victor Frankl (1998), William James (1997), Carl Jung (1953, 1997), Ken Wilber (1998).

Achievement Motivation

One classification of motivation differentiates among achievement, power, and social factors (see McClelland, 1985; Murray, 1938, 1943). In the area of achievement motivation, the work on goal-theory (Pintrich, 2000) has differentiated three separate types of goals: mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills; performance goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which focus on achieving normative-based standards, doing better than others, or doing well without a lot of effort; and social goals which focus on relationships among people (see Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986; Urdan Maehr, 1995). In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals. However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful.

One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure (more often associated with performance goals) or achieve success (more often associated with mastery goals). In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.

Other Theories

At this point there is little agreement about the identification of basic human needs, how they are ordered, and which theory of motivation might be most basic or correct. Drawing on the work of Maslow (1954) and those who have critiqued his theory, Ryan and Deci (2000) suggested three needs, although they are not necessarily arranged hierarchically: (1) autonomy, (2) competence, and (3) relatedness. Thompson, Grace and Cohen (2001) stated the most important needs for children are: (1) connection, (2) recognition, and (3) power. Nohria, Lawrence, and Wilson (2001) provided evidence from a sociobiology theory of motivation that humans have four basic needs: (1) acquire objects and experiences; (2) bond with others in long-term relationships of mutual care and commitment; (3) learn and make sense of the world and of ourselves; and (4) to defend ourselves, our loved ones, beliefs and resources from harm. The Institute for Management Excellence (2001) suggested there are nine basic human needs: (1) security, (2) adventure, (3) freedom, (4) exchange, (5) power, (6) expansion, (7) acceptance, (8) community, and (9) expression.

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Neuromodulators, stress and plasticity: a role for endocannabinoid signalling
Laura Senst , Jaideep Bains
Journal of Experimental Biology 2014 217: 102-108; doi:10.1242/jeb.089730
Laura Senst
Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary , 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB , Canada, T2N 4N1
Jaideep Bains
Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary , 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB , Canada, T2N 4N1
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Any unanticipated threat to survival triggers an immediate sequence of events in the brain that culminate in a coordinated neural, endocrine and behavioural response. There is increasing evidence that stress itself modifies neural circuits. In other words, neural stress circuits learn from stress. This self-teaching is surprising as one might expect these essential circuits to be hard-wired. Our recent findings, however, indicate that repeated homotypic stress in rats causes functional changes in neural circuitry in the hypothalamus. In particular, we focus on signalling via endocannabinoids and describe plasticity in this system that impacts fast retrograde signalling at synapses on to the stress command neurons in the brain. Interestingly, this plasticity appears to be limited to early adolescence, hinting at unique modes of control of neural circuits by stress during different developmental stages.

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In all organisms, maintaining a stable internal environment and responding to external threats is vital for survival. This requires the ability to sense, transduce and respond effectively to real and perceived stress. In mammals, multiple brain nuclei are activated in response to both physiological and psychological challenges. When faced with a challenge to internal homeostasis or an unanticipated, direct threat to survival, this ‘stress circuitry’ rapidly sets in motion a cascade of neural, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses. Mounting an appropriate physiological response to such challenges requires that the brain interprets, learns from and then remembers the appropriate stimuli. This series of tasks is accomplished by groups of interconnected neural networks that incorporate information from sensory systems, process this information in higher brain centres then engage downstream effectors to coordinate generalized behavioural and physiological adaptation to change. In the short-term, these adaptations are beneficial as they allow the organism to respond to the threat. They also promote learning, which results in more refined responses to subsequent challenges. When launched inappropriately, however – for example, in the absence of stress – they can have deleterious effects on mental and physical health ( McEwen and Gianaros, 2011 ; Stetler and Miller, 2011 ).

Not to mention, personal details such as your home address can be used for identity theft and online scams.

So what can you do to reduce your risk — apart from not buying internet-connected toys at all?

Before purchasing an internet-connected toy, Peter Zaluzny suggests you research the toy vendor's security record .

research the toy vendor's security record

Try to find out whether the company has been hacked before, how the company responded, and how long it took to inform customers of the breach, says Mr Zaluzny, a technology journalist with the consumer advocacy group Choice.

And, if you do purchase a toy, Mr Zaluzny recommends sharing as little information as possible with the manufacturer . This could include email addresses, photos, names and ages, among other details.

sharing as little information as possible with the manufacturer
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Often, it is impossible to say whether information collected by a smart toy is securely stored or even where it is stored.

"Behind any of the smart toys … there are a whole bunch of computers," Dr Merkel says.

"Not even security professionals can tell whether [toy vendors] are doing their job properly and you're only going to find out when there's a data leak."

Of course, this is the case with any internet-connected device, including your smartphone. But Dr Merkel points out that Apple and Google spend a lot of time and money making their smartphones reasonably secure.

"Apple and Google hire large numbers of the best information security people out there," he says. "That doesn't apply to your average smart toy vendor."

Nothing connected to the internet is 100 per cent safe, but if you do have a smart toy in the house, make sure it is as secure as possible.

If it uses Bluetooth, Mr Zaluzny recommends ensuring the connection is locked down pointed kneelength boots Free Shipping Best Wholesale Manchester Great Sale 2018 Newest g8SX6ckjl

connection is locked down with a password

When creating a password, do not:

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If left insecure, someone nearby could "tap into the toy" and potentially use it to communicate with the child, among other risks.

Remember that just like a smartphone, the toy's software may require updates. If one becomes available, make sure you download the update quickly — it could contain vital security improvements.

download the update quickly

And, disconnect immediately if something seems awry , Mr Zaluzny adds.

disconnect immediately if something seems awry

Finally, if the product is not being used, turn it off and disconnect it from the internet.

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